Translating the diabetes prevention program to primary care: A pilot study

TitleTranslating the diabetes prevention program to primary care: A pilot study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsWhittemore, R, Melkus, G, Wagner, J, Dziura, J, Northrup, V, Grey, M
JournalNurs Res
Date PublishedJan-Feb
Publication Languageeng
ISBN Number1538-9847 (Electronic)0029-6562 (Linking)
Accession Number19092550
Keywords*Life Style, Adult, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology/*prevention & control, Female, Humans, Hypercholesterolemia/complications/diagnosis/prevention & control, Hypertension/complications/diagnosis/prevention & control, Male, Middle Aged, New England, Nurse Practitioners/*organization & administration, Nursing Evaluation Research, Nutritional Sciences/education, Obesity/complications/diagnosis/prevention & control, Patient Education as Topic/*organization & administration, Patient Satisfaction, Pilot Projects, Primary Health Care/*organization & administration, Program Evaluation, Prospective Studies, Single-Blind Method

BACKGROUND: Research on the translation of efficacious lifestyle change programs to prevent type 2 diabetes into community or clinical settings is needed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the reach, implementation, and efficacy of a 6-month lifestyle program implemented in primary care by nurse practitioners (NPs) for adults at risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The NP sites (n = 4) were randomized to an enhanced standard care program (one NP and one nutrition session) or a lifestyle program (enhanced standard care and six NP sessions). These NPs recruited adults at risk of diabetes from their practice (n = 58), with an acceptance rate of 70%. RESULTS: The program reached a diverse, obese, and moderately low income sample. The NPs were able to successfully implement the protocols. The average length of the program was 9.3 months. Attendance was high (98%), and attrition was low (12%). The NPs were able to adopt the educational, behavioral, and psychosocial strategies of the intervention easily. Motivational interviewing was more difficult for NPs. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis indicated significant trends or improvement in both groups for nutrition and exercise behavior. Participants of the lifestyle program demonstrated trends for better high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and exercise behavior compared with the enhanced standard care participants. Twenty-five percent of lifestyle participants met treatment goals of 5% weight loss compared with 11% of standard care participants. DISCUSSION: A lifestyle program can be implemented in primary care by NPs, reach the targeted population, and be modestly successful. Further research is indicated.

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